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or Pickard and Emery, ch. 7.71
or Open University Press, 5.2
Wallace, J. M. and S. Vogel, 1994. Reports to the Nation on Our Changing Planet: El Nino and climate prediction. UCAR Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies, Boulder, CO.
Tomczak and Godfrey, ch. 19
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No good text references
2. What is thermally direct circulation? What is the role of rotation in such a circulation? Is the surface pressure (atmospheric) high or low over the region of warmer temperature?
3. What causes upwelling in the Arabian Sea and during which monsoon does it occur?
4. During which part of the monsoon cycle is the tropical Indian Ocean circulation most like that of the Pacific and Atlantic?
5. What happens to surface currents along the equator during the transition between monsoons?
6. About how often do El Ninos occur and what sets this timescale?
7. What happens to the trades along the equator at the beginning of an El Nino? What is this usually in response to?
8. What happens to precipitation patterns during an El Nino?
9. What is the Southern Oscillation Index? At which phase of the El Nino/La Nina is the pressure at Tahiti high?
10. Why is biological productivity along Peru decreased during an El Nino?
11. What is the major decadal mode of variability for the Pacific? for the North Atlantic? tropical Atlantic? What are their spatial patterns? Describe changes in surface pressure, sea surface temperature that accompany the modes of variability.
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