Call for papers for special issue of Deep-Sea Research

A special issue of Deep-Sea Research containing papers based on our ONR-sponsored JES program from the past several years will be produced. The deadline for submission of papers is now JUNE 1, 2002. The papers can be on any topic related to the the oceangraphy of the Japan/East Sea. There will be room for roughly 25 papers in the special issue. Greg Jacobs will serve as one editor, primarily for modelling papers. Steve Riser will serve as the second editor, primarily for observational or data analysis papers. You can send the papers to either one.
Greg Jacobs:
Steve Riser:

Cruise reports and new developments (most recent listed first):

  • C. Friehe - February 5, 13, 27 Aircraft Reports
  • C. Lee - January 16, 20, 29, 2000 cruise news
  • C. Lee - new project website for use during current Revelle cruise
  • A. Girard Digital pictures from R/V Revelle Hahnaro 7 (Talley, chief scientist)
  • L. Talley - June-July, 1999. Hydrographic observations of the JES - cruise report and email.
  • R. Watts (URI)- June, 1999, deployment of IES and current meter array - email
  • Lee, Jones and Brink - May, 1999, Seasoar coverage of Subarctic Front - emails from the Revelle and notes
  • H. Perkins - May, 1999, ADCP/mooring deployment in Tsushima Strait - notes
  • V. Lobanov - April, 1999, eddy cruise to northern Japan Sea - email

    Lobanov: Pilot eddy cruise to northern Japan Sea on the Gordienko (email April 26, 1999)

    I like to inform you that we have finished the pilot eddy cruise on 23 April. We made 76 stations with CTD and bottle sampling located in the Peter the Great Bay and over the Japan Basin. The scheme is attached. We had a delay with the cruise however we managed to find -1.2 C dense water in the bay and slope and some cold and slightly fresh water at a very bottom layer (2800 m) just below the slope. We will wait for results of chemical analysis to make conclusions. We crossed 3 eddies of different life duration and found them pretty strong and tracing down to bottom with a few low potential vortisity layers. Even the last eddy was hardly visible at the IR images it had a comparable density gradient with the yonger one. I hope we will manage to see the evolution of at least one of them by samling in summer and winter cruises. We had a good training of the team in the conditions of very hard work. Luckily the weather was quite slow.

    To implement the cuise we used Rusian Ministry of Science grants for Ecosystem sudies and the World ocean program wich we luckily received in early April. Unfortunately it was impossible to use our vessels at that period, so we organized the cruise as joint expedition with Hydromet institute (FERHRI) on r/v Pavel Gordienko. Thank you very much for your support.

    We made salinity measurement by Autosal at major part of the stations. However to be proved with the data I would like to make a calibration of our CTD. This would also allow us to compare our measurements with the data of coming summer and winter cruises. Could you advise me how to do this.

    (text deleted)

    Best regards,


    Hank Perkins: Summary of LINKS 1 Cruise in Korea/Tsushima Strait (June 4, 1999)

    The LINKS 1 cruise, part of an NRL program to study the linkage between east Asian marginal seas, was carried out in Korea/Tsushima Strait from 05-13 May 1999 on the R/V Roger Revelle. Six bottom-mounted ADCPs and Wave-Tide Gauges were deployed along each of two lines, one line at each end of the Strait. Instrument locations are indicated as sites N1- N6 and S1-S6 on the accompanying map. Mooring operations were greatly facilitated by the Revelle's p-code GPS navigaton and dynamic positioning systems and by exceptionally calm weather throughout the cruise. The instruments will be recovered and redeployed in October, with final recovery in March 2000.

    CTD stations were made at and between each ADCP site and water samples for chemical analysis were taken by participants from KORDI. The ship's hull-mounted ADCP provided current measurements along the mooring lines lines during deployments and during post-deployment runs along the two lines. Additional ADCP sections were made along two short sections closer to Tsushima Island.

    Craig Lee (email May 26, 1999)

    We completed the first mesoscale survey and executed another long north-south SeaSoar tow from 40 10 N to 38 00 N along 135 10 E (southbound) and 134 42 E (northbound). The strong subsurface front seen in the section to the west was not present in the eastern section, and was weak in the western one. Following this, we started on the second pass over the survey pattern. Near the end of the first leg, SeaSoar collided with something large and rigid. Fishing gear had been extremely light (we've seen very little gear since we left the Korean coast- even the front is uncluttered), but is still the most likely suspect. No surface expression of the obstacle was seen. When we brought the fish aboard, the stainless steel nose cone had a deep horizontal crease across the brow, both sides of the upper tail fin had been sheared off and a couple of the impeller blades had been bent. The largest loss was the Hydroscat. One of it's underwater connectors was sheared off by the impact, allowing water into the pressure case. Luigi (our electrical engineer) cracked the case, broke down the components and cleaned and packed them for shipment back to the US.- we cannot effect repairs here.

    While repairs were being made to SeaSoar, we began executing a cross-front hydrographic survey originally planned for later in the cruise. This has been an all-hands drill due to the tight station spacing and the intensive nature of the water sampling, and everyone has been responding wonderfully. We are currently half way through the survey, which will provide valuable in-situ data to help us interpret the SeaSoar observations. Both CTD casts and optical profiles are being collected. SeaSoar required approximately 12 hours to repair, including a change of nose-cone to compensate for the loss of Hydroscat. The repaired system has been checked out and tested, and will be redeployed following the completion of this hydro line. Because we were at the end of a survey line and immediately switched to hydrocast mode, we will not loose much sampling time to this incident. I anticipate that we will still be able to execute two more repeats of the frontal survey and one or two sections off the Korean coast. If time allows, we will also do a long SeaSoar section on the steam back to Korea.

    Weather-wise we have been very fortunate. We've had mostly clear skies (and thus good remote sensing) for most of the cruise. A low pressure system passed over us yesterday, bringing about 12 hours of bumpy riding. Seas picked up quickly but calmed within hours of the time the winds relaxed. Just a taste of the fun to come in January.

    That's about all for now...

    Craig Lee (Email June 4, 1999):

    (text deleted) ... the last part of our cruise went well. We did another pass of the frontal survey, a set of sections spanning an interesting loop-current like feature to the south and a cross-shelf section at 36 10 N. I'll write something more detailed in the next few days and mail it to you when I get back to the states.

    Watts and Wimbush: deployment of IES and current meter array in the Ulleung Basin - email report

    R/V Roger Revelle, Weekly Scientific Report, Hahnaro Leg 6, June 13, 1999

    The third in a sequence of R/V Roger Revelle cruises in the Sea of Japan (known as the East Sea in Korea) is nearly completed. The principal activity is deployment of an array of 25 pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) and 13 current-meter moorings (CM) in the Ulleung Basin, which covers roughly a 250-km square region between Korea and Japan. Thanks to a very efficient and helpful ship's crew, a well-equipped ship, and nearly ideal weather conditions (plus a little help from Lady Luck), we are well ahead of schedule: after one week at sea we've successfully deployed all but three PIES and one CM. Prior to deployment, all CM releases have been wire-lowered to 1000 m to pretest their performance at cold temperatures and great depths. Following each deployment we acoustically tracked each mooring to the bottom and communicated with it to verify its performance. We've also carried out two test deployments of a new model PIES (with extra help from the Chief, P. Mauricio in fabricating a part). An XBT has been launched after each PIES deployment.

    This joint project between the Univ. of Rhode Island (URI, Watts and Wimbush) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL, Teague) is benefitting in several ways from collaboration with Korean and Japanese oceanographers at the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, (KORDI, Suk) and the Research Institute for Applied Mechanics at Kyushu University (RIAM, Yoon). Incidentally, the expedition name itself, "HAHNARO," is a Korean word meaning "all pulling together." The full CM array of 18 moorings includes four Korean moorings (from KORDI) and one Japanese mooring (from RIAM). Moreover, two scientists from Korea and two from Japan have been with us on this cruise and have been valuable participants.

    It has been particularly important to coordinate our mooring positions with Korean deep-crab fishing captains. There is intense fishing and crabbing in the Ulleung Basin, including bottom fishing at depths as great as 2,000 meters. So we and the local fishermen have a mutual concern about interference from the other's activities. KORDI scientists, led by Dr. Moon-Sik Suk, kindly arranged a meeting with the fishing captains union earlier this year, and we hope to have another such meeting after the cruise. During this cruise we've encountered concerned fishermen in their boats; having Dr. Suk on board has been extremely valuable for on-site negotiations and real-time decision-making in these situations, allaying the fishermen's fears or repositioning moorings.

    If our success continues, we anticipate finishing the cruise early. We greatly appreciate the efforts of everyone on board, and especially the competent and willing support of the R/V Roger Revelle officers and crew (Capt. T. Desjardins), and from Koonce and Jacobson, the marine technicians aboard.

    Randy Watts and Mark Wimbush / URI

    L. Talley - June-July, 1999.Hydrographic observations of the JES.

    Complete cruise report.

    Email from R/V Revelle 7/2/99

    The first week of work on this leg on the Revelle finally brought together all of the planning for this very international project. The completely full science crew includes two large groups from the Russian Academy of Sciences (7) and from the Russian hydrometeorological agency (5), both in Vladivostok, a group from Seoul National University (2), and groups from SIO (8), WHOI (6) and UW (2). Three main science projects are aboard - hydrographic/CTD profiling at about 120 stations in the Japanese and Korean sectors of the East/Japan Sea, towed video plankton recording (VPR), and bio-optical profiling. At the end of the first week, we have completed over 40 stations covering the Korean sector - Korea/Tsushima Strait and the Ulleung Basin. The bridge reports more fishing boats here than they've ever encountered anywhere - some nights there have been brightly lit boats at every location around us and over a hundred boats on the radars. Encounters with the Korean marine patrol and Navy were a little less welcome given our clearance status. In Japanese waters, the daily P3 flyover checking our reported position reminds us that our presence is noted.

    The hydrographic data sets are a real breakthrough, providing for the first time complete coverage of the deeper waters, particularly for nutrients, oxygen, CFC's, alkalinity and pH. The chemical properties are defining deep circulation features that have not been described before. The VPR tows and supporting plankton net tows are showing this area to be much more productive and diverse than expected.

    Lynne Talley (chief scientist)

    R/V Revelle, July 10, 1999

    We have just passed the end of our second week of hydrography, bio-optics and towing a video plankton recorder in the Japan (East) Sea. We celebrated a breezy July 4 with a barbecue during a long steam in Russian waters. We have just spent a spectacularly beautiful day along the northern coast of Honshu and outside Tsugaru Strait with a series of many shallow stations to capture the flow through the Strait. We have completed 91 stations as of now, with about 20 more to go before we return to Pusan, to arrive next Thursday. The weather and our equipment has held, the ship rides beautifully and we have lost no station time. CTD and chemistry analysis operations are gradually being turned over to our Russian colleagues who are aboard as they will be operating our equipment on the Russian research vessel Khromov, sampling the northern Japan Sea starting on July 21.
    Lynne Talley (chief scientist)

    Lynne Talley - Complete cruise report for Hahnaro 7.

    Andrew Girard (WHOI, R/V Revelle Talley cruise)

    Digital pictures from the R/V Revelle Hahnaro 7 (Talley) cruise.

    Craig Lee (UW APL, R/V Revelle cruises)

    New project website, including results during current R/V Revelle cruise

    News: 16 January 2000
    After three days of intensive set-up, we sailed at 16:00 today. All systems are operational. SeaSoar sits on the fantail ready for deployment. Installation of the additional meteorological sensors went well, and all are now logging data as we cruise north. The sonic anemometer's GPS returns time but no position, but this will be rectified by integrating the ship's P-code GPS stream in post-processing. Rob Pinkle is testing his two new sonar systems, which may give us velocities to 1000 m. The NRL group is receiving real-time AVHRR and SeaWiFS imagery. Unfortunately, we forgot to request a cloud-free central basin, so coverage over the study area has been limited. A rencent image provided partial coverage of the subpolar front between 134 E and 135 E, essentially the same region we sampled in spring 1999. The image reveals sharp sea surface temperature contrasts near 40 N, with considerable small-scale structure in and around the front. Our current plan is to steam northward along the Korean coast to 37 45' N, at which point we will deploy SeaSoar and continue directly eastward. Unless tomorrow's images compell us otherwise, we will turn north at 134 E to make our intial section of the front. The weather remains quite good- hopefully everyone will have an opportunity to get their sea legs before we face our first storm.

    Lee: 22 January 2000

    We've survived our first cold air outbreak! Following the last report (16 Jan), we reoccupied the west-east section sampled last spring. Weather remained good during this period. Just off the Korean Coast, the section passed through an eddy-like feature approximately 200 km in diameter. The eddy was warmer and more saline than surrounding waters, with a marked salinity maximum near its base. Near the end of the zonal section (134 E), we sampled a pycnostad similar to the feature observed near the same location during the spring cruise. The pycnostad sat between the 26 and 26.5 kg/m^3 isopycnals with waters near 10 C and 34 psu. Clouds continue to hamper remote sensing efforts, though we have received some clear images over the region sampled during the May cruise. The remainder of the front has been obscured from view. We thus chose to site the first intensive survey in the region we sampled the previous spring.

    At 134 E, we turned north to make our initial section across the front. SeaSoar experienced mechanical difficulties as we neared the subpolar front, forcing a recovery near 39 45' N. Given an estimated 6-10 hours on deck for diagnosis and repair, we elected to steam southward back along the sampling line, executing four hydrographic casts between the recovery point and 39 N. These casts revealed a subsurface oxygen maximum/salinity minimum near 80 m, well beneath the surface mixed layer. A thin salinity maximum resided just beneath this. We traced SeaSoar's problems to a hydraulic unit leak. The component was replaced with a spare and a second dissolved oxygen sensor (Seabird SBE-23) was added to supplement the Langdon unit. SeaSoar was redeployed at 39 N following completion of the fourth hydrographic cast. That evening, winds picked up and temperatures dropped- the start of our first cold air outbreak.

    We spent the next two days executing an intensive survey of the subpolar front in rough, cold conditions. Wind speeds reached 40 knots, with 4-5 m seas and air temperatures well below freezing. Crew and science weathered the conditions well, though the weather certainly took its toll on general energy levels. Revelle was easily able to maintain the required 8 knot towing speed, and SeaSoar performed well despite the rough conditions. Extreme pitching of the ship impacted SeaSoar's perfomance, resulting in a slightly reduced profiling range when the waves were largest.

    Between 134 E and 135 E, the subpolar front sat near 39 50' N with surface temperature gradients of 3 C in 20 km. Mixed layers south of the front were typically 20-40 m deep, with strong stratification at the base. In contrast to our expectations, waters north of the front were warm (5-6 C) with relatively shallow, 50-70 m deep mixed layers. North of 41 N, surface waters cooled to 3 C and the mixed layer deepened considerably. Stratification at the mixed layer base was weaker north of the front than south, but was extremely weak north of 41 N. Subsequent surveys will allow us to explore how the region around the front evolves in response to cold air outbreak events.

    Today dawned on calmer seas, sunshine (!) and much, much weaker winds. Many in the science party spent part of the morning enjoying the ice sculptures left behind by the wind and spray of the last two days. A couple of calm days and several hours of undisturbed sleep will be welcome by all. We are currently finishing the first intensive survey, after which we will recover SeaSoar and execute a high-resolution hydrographic/bio-optical section across the front.

    Lee: 29 January 2000

    Just after our last posting (22 Jan), we completed two lines extending from 39 N to 41 15" N along 134 58" E and 135 12" E. These sections show what appears to be a warm eddy just north of the subpolar front. Mixed layers within the eddy were deeper than those outside, extending below 100 m. Some of the deepest chlorophyll fluorescence and transmissivity signals we have observed were associated with the eddy's bottom edge. North of the eddy we entered the cold, deep mixed layer regime we originally expected to find just north of the subpolar front.

    At the end of the initial survey, we recovered SeaSoar in preparation for an intensive series of hydrographic and optical stations. Recovery revealed extensive fairing (small drag-reduction fins attached to the sea cable) damage, likely caused by rough operating conditions during the previous cold air outbreak. As usual, fairing repair was a lengthy endeavor, this time undertaken at night with air temperatures well below freezing. A large number of the science party turned out for this exercise, and we of the SeaSoar team are very grateful for their help. Had it not been for all the extra hands, it would have been a miserable, all-night affair.

    With SeaSoar aboard, we began a highly resolved section of CTD and optical casts, running from 39 to 41 15" N along 134 28" E. The start of this section coincided with the onset of our second cold air outbreak, with winds gusting to 40 knots, 4-5 m seas and temperatures hovering near -11 C. This event produced a thick coat of ice over the bow, on the bulwark and across the fantail. Revelle provided a stable platform, enabling us to operate despite the conditions. The extreme cold played mischief with several aspects of CTD operations and taught us a few memorable lessons. Problems included frozen plumbing, frozen plugs clogging Nisken bottle drains and general icing of all of our handling gear. Nonetheless, we were able to sample all stations as planned.

    Following the hydro section, we redeployed SeaSoar and begun our second intensive survey. This pattern focuses on the region directly around the front, reoccupying the sections sampled by the first survey but staying between 39 10" and 40 10" N. Shortly after deployment, the SeaSoar CTD ceased telemetering data, forcing us to recover for troubleshooting and repair. After an initial scare over shorting in the sea cable, Paul Fucile quickly tracked the fault to arcing in the winch's slip rings. Following slip ring replacement we redeployed SeaSoar and continued with the second intensive survey.

    Our second cold air event ended the following day. Temperatures remained quite cold, but the sun reappeared and both winds and seas settled down. Various members of the science party joined the Revelle's crew to help chip and clear ice from Revelle's heavily encrusted bow.

    The second survey was completed on 28 January in the calm between cold air outbreaks. In general, mixed layers appear to have deepened and surface waters have cooled considerably since the initial survey, consistent with the response one might expect from several days of strong winds and intense net surface cooling.

    We are currently executing a third intensive survey. This resamples the area of the first and second surveys, but extends northward to capture the southern half of the eddy observed north of the subpolar front. The series of repeated surveys, taken before, during and after cold air outbreaks, will allow us to investigate how the region around the front responds to strong forcing events.

    Friehe: 5, 13, 27 February 2000

    Sea of Japan/East Sea Aircraft Report
    Feb 05, 2000
    Carl A. Friehe, UCI

    The CIRPAS Twin Otter arrived on schedule at Misawa NAF, Japan on Jan. 21. The aircraft was re-configured with the research instrumentation and a successful boundary-layer test flight was flown locally on Jan 29.

    Three 8-hour research flights were flown on Jan 31, Feb 01 and Feb 03. The first was under moderate cold-air outbreak conditions with winds at 100 feet up to 40 knots. The second was in lower winds of about 25 knots. Both flights were low-level grid patterns with a few profiles in the "flux center" around 42N, 132E. The third flight was a combination 5 min 100-foot flux runs and 10 saw-tooth profiles on a line from 42N, 132E towards the coast at Niigata. The purpose of this flight pattern is to follow a streamline to measure the boundary-layer air-mass modification across the JES. Mid-way on the line we flew some comparison wind and turbulence runs around R/V Revelle as she was finishing CTD sections.

    All instrumentation is working well. One of the two Lyman-alpha fast-response hygrometers was repaired on Feb 02. The aircraft has no maintenance problems. The pilots are flying precise patterns with the GPS system in the cockpit, and they are also very accommodating to changes as we see different features from the computer displays in the cabin. There were problems on the "UCI" computer that was attributed to the failure of its data hard disk at altitudes above 10,000 feet during transit to the site. The UCI computer did record data during the low-level portions of the flights. The CIRPAS computer, writing practically all of the same data to a different disk, worked well at all altitudes. The UCI data have been routed to the CIRPAS disk and a successful test flight with 2 hours at 12,000 feet was flown on Feb 04.

    Weather conditions in the JES started with a moderate cold-air outbreak early in the week of Jan 31-Feb 04. Conditions now are not favorable and we are waiting until Mon or Tues of next week for the next outbreak. We will move our western-most boundary another mile to the east of 132E to avoid sensitivity in this area. Air traffic control now requires that we give a 2-day notice for the saw-tooth flux pattern across the JES.

    Facilities here at NAF Misawa are excellent. We have now obtained the required flight-line badges, vans, etc., and everyone is settled in. A Navy reservist assists by following our flight on HF from the Operations Control center. When HF comms are poor during the low-level research tracks, the pilots report using the on-board Iridium satellite phone. The METOC office here has excellent weather forecasting facilities, and we are also able to transfer data directly back to UCI over the Internet. (The UCI data amount to about 75 MB per hour of flight. FTP transfer rates vary from 250 to 600 Kbps.) We are also receiving Shuyi Chen's forecasts over email.

    Sea of Japan/East Sea Aircraft Report
    Feb 13, 2000
    Carl A. Friehe, UCI

    The CIRPAS Twin Otter flew three research flights last week: Feb 08 (low-level "flux center" run; 9.3 hours), Feb 10 (saw-tooth flux-profile pattern across the JES, 8.1 hours), and Feb 12 (saw-tooth profile pattern across the JES, 8.2 hours). Nathan Whitlock, CIRPAS, was the flight scientist on Feb 08, and Friehe flew on Feb 10 and 12. Feb 08 was a condition of good NW surface winds to 40 knots and the flight pattern was extended in the E-W directions to obtain more spatial coverage than was flown in the preceding week. Winds were weaker but from the NW on Feb 10 and 12. Boundary-layer growth along the streamlines was observed in-flight along with several interesting micro-layer features in the profiles on Feb 10.

    All instrumentation is working well. The Edge Tech chilled mirror dew point instrument and the backup Rosemount 858 flow speed and angle probe do ice at higher altitudes but recover for the low-level boundary-layer runs. Problems with the "UCI" computer continue despite efforts to isolate its hard disk from vibration. It was re-booted successfully in flight on Feb 08 and 10 for the boundary-layer portions of the flights, but not on Feb12. On Feb 12 we therefore flew saw-tooth profiles from 100 to 5000 feet with only 1 min 100 foot legs between profiles to obtain mean surface-layer conditions rather than the 5 min flux runs at 100 feet as usually flown in this pattern. We obtained about 15 cycles of soundings on Feb 10. Another spare CPU is due to arrive from UCI on Monday Feb 14. We will also probably use the UCI computer only for the low-level flight legs and leave it shut down for the higher-level transits. The CIRPAS computer continues to work well throughout the all flights.

    Air traffic control clearances are now working smoothly. We had some minor delays in our scheduled departure time of 7 am due to snow removal equipment still on the runway. A new Navy reservist to the project, CDR Bill Elliott, arrived a week ago and is handling our in-flight following radio calls.

    A good sustained cold-air outbreak in the JES is forecast for Tuesday Feb 15 through the end of the week. The best we have seen so far.

    Sea of Japan/East Sea Aircraft Report
    Feb 27, 2000
    Carl A. Friehe and Djamal Khelif, UCI
    Haf Jonsson, CIRPAS

    The CIRPAS Twin Otter flew three research flights last week: Feb 21 (saw-tooth profile pattern across the JES, 8.2 hours), Feb 23 (low-level "flux center" run; 9.1 hours), and Feb 25 (flux divergence pattern over the "flux center," 8.8 hours). Friehe flew on Feb 21 and 25; Nathan Whitlock, CIRPAS, was the flight scientist on Feb 23. Feb 21 and 23 were conditions of good NW surface winds to 40 knots. Winds decreased from about 35 knots to 25 knots on Feb 25. We cancelled a flight planned for Feb 24 on the evening of Feb 23 due to a heavy snow forecast at Misawa. This was the result of a small system that developed quickly in the Japan/East Sea. The new flux divergence pattern flown on the 25th was designed to obtain the vertical variation of the fluxes from 100 feet to about 1200 feet. Seven 10 min along and crosswind legs were flown between these two heights with the 100-foot run repeated mid-way through the pattern and soundings made at each end.

    The instrumentation and computers continue to work reasonably well. The Rosemount 858 probe was disconnected on Feb 21 and 23 so that its signals would not over-range the A-D converter if icing was encountered. On Feb 25 we were confident that there would be minimal icing so we turned it back on and fortunately we were correct. The KT18 downward SST IR signal was intermittent which was traced to a probable loose connector. We have the back-up Tasco IR signal available. There was some water in the radome center hole tubing that may affect its high-frequency response. The KT18 and radome problems were observed at UCI by Djamal Khelif from data transferred after the flights. These were fixed on Sat Feb 26. We also calibrated the Edge Tech and the nose-mounted Lyman alpha hygrometers on the aircraft using the Lycor humidity generator/reference. A small offset in Edge Tech measured dew point of about 0.25C is indicated.

    After landing on Feb 25, we obtained approval from the tower to roll-out down the entire length of the 10,00 foot runway to help determine the heading offsets in the Boeing C-Migits and Trimble Tans Vector systems. On the runway, aircraft track should equal true heading. For the Boeing unit, heading cannot be determined when the unit is stationary, and it was aligned as near to the aircraft axis as possible. The plot below shows a mean difference between track and true heading of about 0.784 deg, which we will apply to the final wind calculations. The oscillations in the plot are due to rather gusty conditions at Misawa on the 25th; we intend to perform this test again.

    (plot included in doc file, not in this news list)

    A short cold-air outbreak in the JES is forecast for Monday Feb 28, and we plan to fly the flux divergence pattern. Outbreak winds are forecast to decrease for Tuesday, our last possible flight day, and at present we do not plan to fly. This will be our last field report from NAF Misawa.